Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their ideas. IJCTT aims to adhere to the Best Practice Guidelines framed on Publication Ethics (COPE) and abides by its Code of Conduct.

All manuscripts are subject to peer review and are expected to meet standards of academic excellence. If the editor approves submissions, peer-reviewers will consider submissions whose identities remain anonymous to the authors. Our Research Integrity team will occasionally seek advice outside standard peer review, for example, on submissions with serious ethical, security, biosecurity, or societal implications. We may consult experts and the academic editor before deciding on appropriate actions, including but not limited to: recruiting reviewers with specific expertise, assessment by additional editors, and declining to consider a submission further.

All journals published by IJCTT are committed to publishing only original material, i.e., material that has neither been published elsewhere nor is under review elsewhere. IJCTT uses the software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will incur plagiarism sanctions.

Manuscripts found to have been published elsewhere or under review elsewhere will incur duplicate submission/publication sanctions. If authors have used their own previously published work or work currently under review as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they are required to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions beyond those of the previous work.

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author’s work or articles published in a particular journal will incur citation manipulation sanctions.

Submitted manuscripts found to have either fabricated or falsified experimental results, including the manipulation of images, will incur data fabrication and falsification sanctions.

All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript and approved all its claims. It is important to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution, including students, research scholars, project assistants, and laboratory technicians.

Redundant publications involve the inappropriate division of study outcomes into several articles.

Conflicts of interest (COIs, also known as ‘competing interests’) occur when issues outside research could be reasonably perceived to affect the neutrality or objectivity of the work or its assessment. Potential conflicts of interest must be declared – whether or not they had an influence – to allow informed decisions. In most cases, this declaration will not stop work from being published, nor will it always prevent someone from being involved in a review process.

If unsure, declare a potential interest or discuss it with the editorial office. Undeclared interests may incur sanctions. Submissions with undeclared conflicts that are later revealed may be rejected. Published articles may need to be re-assessed, have a corrigendum published, or retracted in serious cases.

  • Financial – funding and other payments, goods and services received or expected by the authors relating to the subject of the work or from an organization with interest in the outcome of the work.
  • Affiliations – being employed by, on the advisory board for, or a member of an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work.
  • Intellectual property – patents or trademarks owned by someone or their organization
  • Personal – friends, family, relationships, and other close personal connections
  • Ideology – beliefs or activism, e.g. political or religious, relevant to the work
  • Academic – competitors or someone whose work is critiqued.

Authors must declare all potential interests in a ‘Conflicts of interest’ section, which should explain why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state, “The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.” Submitting authors are responsible for co-authors declaring their interests. Authors must declare current or recent funding (including for article processing charges) and other payments, goods or services that might influence the work. All funding, whether a conflict or not, must be declared in the ‘Acknowledgments’. The involvement of anyone other than the authors who 1) has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) is affiliated with an organization with such an interest; or 3) was employed or paid by a funder in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript, or the decision to publish must be declared.
Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Editors and reviewers should decline to be involved with a submission when they:

  • Have a recent publication or current submission with any author
  • Share or recently shared an affiliation with any author
  • Collaborate or recently collaborated with any author
  • Have a close personal connection to any author
  • Have a financial interest in the subject of the work
  • Feel unable to be objective

Reviewers must declare any remaining interests in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form, which will be considered by the editor.
Editors and reviewers must declare if they have previously discussed the manuscript with the authors.

In the event that there are documented violations of any of the above mentioned policies in any journal, regardless of whether or not the violations occurred in a journal published by IJCTT, the following sanctions will be applied:

  • Immediate rejection of the infringing manuscript
  • Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by IJCTT by any of the authors of the infringing manuscript
  • Prohibition against all of the authors for any new submissions to any journal published by IJCTT, either individually or in combination with other authors of the infringing manuscript, as well as in combination with any other authors. This prohibition will be imposed for a minimum of 36 months
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by IJCTT

In cases where the violations of the above policies are found to be particularly egregious, the publisher reserves the right to impose additional sanctions beyond those described above.

The authors must record the results of their research in a form that its analysis and review could be done before the publication and by other researchers for a reasonable period after publication. Fabrication, reporting results that were never conducted or deceived or intent to mislead, is a form of scientific misconduct and is regarded as highly unethical and, in some jurisdictions, may be illegal.

The authors should submit their research papers in the journal's precise format for each publication. The information provided by the authors should be concise and authentic and give details of the research experiments performed. Authors should include recent research articles and bring comparative analysis to support their research. However, in doing so, authors should rewrite the information in their own words and represent it in a form that supports their original research work. This information, used from competitors' work, other researchers and partners, should be cited as references in the research papers. They should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and final approval of the version to be published. A cited author should meet all of these criteria. Individuals that made other contributions to the research, like obtaining funds for the research, collecting important data and materials, or coordinating with the publication, are significant but do not qualify for authorship. These individuals can be acknowledged in the research papers.

The funding source for the research project or the document's publication should be stated. The author should clearly declare that the submitted work and its essential substance have not previously been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. If a primary research report has been published, the author should clearly state it and also mention the advancement and new analyses or syntheses of data in the secondary research report. An overlap of about 10 per cent is considered acceptable between such journals.

Plagiarism is an unethical practice in the field of research and is completely unacceptable. Authors are required to state that they are the copyright owners or have taken the copyright owners' permission before submitting the research report. Any breach of copyright is not acceptable.