An Overview of the Existing Routing Protocols and Trust Based Algorithms in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

  IJCTT-book-cover
 
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT)          
 
© 2015 by IJCTT Journal
Volume-20 Number-1
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : Bodhy Krishna S
  10.14445/22312803/IJCTT-V20P104

MLA

Bodhy Krishna S "An Overview of the Existing Routing Protocols and Trust Based Algorithms in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks ". International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) V20(1):19-27, Feb 2015. ISSN:2231-2803. www.ijcttjournal.org. Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.

Abstract -
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network that can be dynamically formed to exchange information by wireless hosts which may be mobile. The network is ad hoc because it does not rely on any pre-existing network infrastructure like routers in wired networks. The devices in a MANET can communicate with each other without the help of any centralized administrator. Such networks have no fixed topology because of the high degree of node mobility. The nodes in a MANET sometimes act as routers to forward packets to each other. These nodes generally have a limited transmission range, so each node seeks the assistance of its neighboring nodes in forwarding packets.Thus data is sent between nodes by hopping through the intermediate nodes. Node mobility may cause the routes change. Hence efficient and reliable routing is one of the key challenges in mobile ad hoc networks. Many routing algorithms have been devised and developed for attaining this task. The unique feature of these protocols is their ability to trace routes in spite of a dynamic topology. This paper presents some of the important routing protocols designed for MANET among which DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) is considered in detail. MANET is used in a wide variety of areas like military environment to maintain information network between military personnel’s, civilian environment like Ad-hoc classrooms and conferences, emergency operations like search and rescue etc. Hence, security challenges of MANET are also a very important area which should be taken in to consideration. So in this paper some important routing algorithms are also presented which have their own way to establish the trust and transmit packets securely. These algorithms use DSR as the basis of routing technique and that is the reason why DSR is discussed in detail in this paper.

References
[1] Elizabeth M. Royer and Chai-Keong Toh. “A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks”. Technical report, University of California and Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, 1999.
[2] Liu Cheng-Ying, a random wireless network strategies and the stability of the routing methods, 1999.
[3] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly Dynamic Destination- Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers, In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, pages 234-244, 1994.
[4] R. Dube et al., "Signal Stability based Adaptive Routing (SA) for Ad Hoc Mobile Networks," PerS. Commun., Feb. 1997, pp. 36-45
[5] Charles E. Perkins and Elizabeth M.Royer. “Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing”. Technical report, Sun Micro Systems Laboratories Advanced Development Group, USA.
[6] Tsu-Wei Chen and Mario Gerla, "Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks" Proc. IEEE ICC'98, 5 pages. http://www.ics.uci.edu/ ~atm/adhoc/ paper- collection/gerla-gsr-icc98.pdf
[7] C.-C. Chiang, "Routing in Clustered Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks with Fading Channel" Proc. IEEE SICON'97, Apr.1997, pp.197-211. http://www.ics.uci.edu/~atm/adhoc/paper-collection/gerla-routing-clustered- sicon97.pdf
[8] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks”, ACM Mobile Networks and Applications Journal, pp.183-197, 1996.
[9] A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks" IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Aug. 1999,pp.1369-79. http://www. cs.uclaedu/NRL/wireless/PAPER/jsac99.ps.gz
[10] Extensions to OSPF to Support Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, Madhavi Chandra, Abhay Roy, March, 2010
[11] Z. J. Haasand M.R. Pearlman, "The Performance of Query Control Schemes for the Zone Routing Protocol,"ACM SIGCOMM'98.
[12] SHARP: A Hybrid Adaptive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc NetworksVenugopalan Rama subramanian, Zygmunt J. Haas, Emin Gun Sirer. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (Mobihoc), Annapolis, Maryland, June 2003.
[13] Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer, Samir R. Das, "Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing", October 99 IETF Draft, 33 pages.
[14] VD Park and MS Corson "A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks", Proc.INFOCOM'97, Apr. 1997, 9 pages.
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~atm/adhoc/paper-collection/corson-adaptive-routing- infocom97.pdf [15] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li, Y.C. Tay, "Cluster Based Routing Protocol" August 1999 IETF Draft, 27 pages.
[16] C.-K. Toh, "Long-lived Ad-Hoc Routing based on the concept of Associativity" March 1999 IETF Draft, 8 pages.
[17] R. Dube et al., "Signal Stability based adaptive routing for Ad Hoc Mobile networks", IEEE Pers. Comm., Feb.1997, pp. 36 45.http://www.cs.umd. edu/projects/mcml/papers/pcm97.ps
[18] P. Sinha, R. Sivakumar, and V. Bharghavan, "CEDAR: A CoreExtraction Distributed Ad Hocrouting Algorithm,"Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '99, Mar. 1999.
[19] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz. “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. Technical report,Carnegie Mellon University, 1996.
[20] X. Li Z, Jia P, Zhang R, Zhang H, and Wang, “ Trust-based on-demand multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks” The Institution of Engineering and Technology(IET), School of Computer Science & Technology, Shandong Univ., Ji'nan, China, Volume: 4, Issue: 4, ISSN: 1751-8709, DOI: 10.1049/iet-ifs.2009.0140, pp. 212-232, 20th December 2010.
[21 ] Lacharite, Y.Dang Quan Nguyen, Maoyu Wang, and Lamont L, “A Trust-based Security architecture for tactical MANETs” IEEE Military Communications Conference, (MILCOM 2008), San Diego, CA, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2676-8, DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2008.4753215, pp. 1-7, 19 January 2009.
[22] A. A. Pirzada, A. Datta, and C. McDonald, \Propagating trust in ad-hoc networks for reliable routing," Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, pp. 58-62, Finland, 2004.
[23] A. A. Pirzada, A. Datta, and C. McDonald, \Trust based routing for ad-hoc wireless Networks," Proceeding of IEEE International Conference Networks, pp.326-330, Singapore, 2004.
[24] C. Wang, X. Yang, and Y. Gao, \A Routing protocol based on trust for MANETs," Proceeding of Sixth Annual International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing, LNCS 3795, pp. 959- 964, Springer- Verlag,Beijing, China, 2005.
[25] Jassim H.S, Yussof S, Tiong Sieh Kiong, Koh S.P, and Ismail R, “A routing protocol based on trusted and shortest path selection for mobile Ad hoc network” IEEE 9th International Conference on Communications (MICC), Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, ISBN:978-1-4244-5531, DOI: 10.11O9/MICC.2009.5431438, pp. 547-554, 15th March 2010.
[26] Sanjay K Dhurandher, and Vijeta Mehra, “Multi-path and Message Trust-Based Secure Routing Adhoc Networks” IEEE, International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and Telecommunication Technologies, Trivandrum, Kerala,ISBN: 978-0-7695-3915-7, DOI: 10.1109/ACT.2009.55,pp.189-194, 12 January 2010.
[27 ] Che-YuLiu, Woungang, Han-Chieh, Dhurandher S.K, Ting-Yun Chi, and Obaidat M.S, “Message Security in Multipath Ad Hoc Networks Using a Neural Network-Based Cipher” IEEE Global Tele-communications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Houston, TX, USA, ISBN: 978-1-4244-9266-4, DOI:10.1109/GLOCOM.2011.6133519,pp. 1-5, 19th January 2012.

Keywords
Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols, Trust based routing algorithms, Trust Levels.